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Santiago Bailey
Santiago Bailey

Exposure 36



Importance: Exposure of young animals to commonly used anesthetics causes neurotoxicity including impaired neurocognitive function and abnormal behavior. The potential neurocognitive and behavioral effects of anesthesia exposure in young children are thus important to understand.




Exposure 36



Design, setting, and participants: Sibling-matched cohort study conducted between May 2009 and April 2015 at 4 university-based US pediatric tertiary care hospitals. The study cohort included sibling pairs within 36 months in age and currently 8 to 15 years old. The exposed siblings were healthy at surgery/anesthesia. Neurocognitive and behavior outcomes were prospectively assessed with retrospectively documented anesthesia exposure data.


Conclusions and relevance: Among healthy children with a single anesthesia exposure before age 36 months, compared with healthy siblings with no anesthesia exposure, there were no statistically significant differences in IQ scores in later childhood. Further study of repeated exposure, prolonged exposure, and vulnerable subgroups is needed.


At an April 2011 Board of Forestry meeting, several residents announced the results of a community-led, urine sampling effort. The results showed elevated levels of atrazine and 2,4-D in their urine. The Oregon Department of Forestry (ODF) notified the Pesticide Analytic and Response Center (PARC) of the results. As co-chair of PARC, OHA joined a multi-agency workgroup to develop the Highway 36 Corridor Exposure Investigation (EI) in order to determine if people are being exposed to pesticides in the Highway 36 corridor, and if so, the health implications of these exposures.


One other possibility that may not have had anything at all to do with your camera or the way the film was loaded is that Kodak accidentally put a length of film cut for a 24 exposure roll into a film cassette labeled "36". Although extremely rare, it does happen. A normal 24-exposure roll can usually be stretched to 26 frames in many 35mm cameras.


Exposure therapy is one of the main treatments for a fear of dentists. During exposure therapy, a mental health professional exposes you to situations and images that may trigger your symptoms. This exposure happens in a controlled setting where you can work through your responses. Most people with specific phobias see their symptoms improve after getting this type of psychotherapy (talk therapy).


Dentophobia (fear of dentists) can lead to untreated dental problems and poor oral health. This phobia can also affect your self-confidence and relationships. Healthcare providers and your dentist can help you overcome your fear of going to the dentist. Many techniques, including exposure therapy, guided imagery and relaxation techniques, can reduce your anxiety and improve your quality of life.


Additionally, listed below are other health effects that have been linked to TCE, PCE, benzene, and/or vinyl chloride in populations other than Camp Lejeune who worked with and/or drank water contaminated with these chemicals. These links are based on studies with positive associations between exposures to these chemicals and development of health effects.


In 1971, researchers linked prenatal (while in the womb, or in utero) DES exposure to a type of cancer of the cervix and vagina called clear cell adenocarcinoma in a small group of women (3). Soon after, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) notified health care providers throughout the country that DES should not be prescribed to pregnant women (4). The drug continued to be prescribed to pregnant women in Europe until 1978 (5).


Males exposed to DES in utero, referred to as DES sons, have been studied for their risk of testicular and prostate cancers. There is no evidence to date that DES exposure in utero increases the risk of prostate cancer (12, 13). However, the evidence around testicular cancer is mixed.


Cardiovascular disease. Individuals exposed to DES have an increased risk of high cholesterol, hypertension, coronary artery disease, and heart attack but not of stroke (17, 18). The associations between prenatal DES exposure and coronary artery disease and heart attack appear to be stronger in DES daughters than DES sons (17).


Early menopause. DES daughters have more than twice the risk of early menopause (menopause that begins before age 45) as unexposed women. Scientists estimate that 3% of DES-exposed women have experienced early menopause due to their exposure (10).


Depression. One study found a 40% higher risk of depression in DES daughters than in unexposed women (19), but other studies have not found increased risks (20, 21). Prenatal exposure of men to DES was not associated with the risk of depression (21).


Psychosexual characteristics. Findings from animal studies have raised the possibility that prenatal exposure to DES may influence certain psychological and sexual characteristics of adult men and women. However, a 2003 study found little evidence that such exposure is associated with the likelihood of ever having been married, age at first sexual intercourse, number of sexual partners, or having had a same-sex sexual partner in adulthood (20).


A study published in 2020 found that DES daughters were about 40% less likely to identify as gay/lesbian or bisexual compared with unexposed women (22). There were indications that DES-exposed men were more likely to be gay or bisexual, but these associations were not statistically significant (22). The number of transgender participants was too small to assess associations with DES exposure.


However, finding medical records many decades later can be difficult. If the health care provider has retired or died, another provider may have taken over the practice as well as the records. The county medical society or health department may know where the records have been stored. Some pharmacies keep records for a long time and can be contacted regarding prescription dispensing information. Military medical records are kept for 25 years. In most cases, however, it may be impossible to confirm whether DES was used. Although records may not be available, some anatomic features that may be visible during a pelvic exam can lead a health care provider to suspect DES exposure.


Men whose mothers took DES while pregnant should inform their health care provider of their exposure and be examined periodically. Although the risk of developing testicular cancer among DES sons is unclear, males with undescended or unusually small testicles have an increased risk of testicular cancer whether or not they were exposed to DES. Most men diagnosed with testicular cancer are younger, with less than 9% diagnosed over age 55, so the risk among DES sons, the youngest of whom are now 50, is likely to be low.


Researchers continue to study DES daughters as they move through their menopausal years. In a pilot study, postmenopausal DES daughters had altered estrogen metabolism, suggesting that prenatal exposure to this endocrine disruptor may influence estrogen metabolism many years later (33). The cancer risks for exposed sons are also being studied. In addition, researchers are studying possible health effects on the DES grandchildren.


The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) is leading animal studies to investigate DES exposure and its effects on health. NIEHS researchers developed a rodent model of prenatal DES exposure that has been useful in replicating and predicting adverse health effects. This experimental model has been used worldwide to study mechanisms involved in DES-related toxicity and the adverse effects of less potent environmental estrogens.


NCI's DES Follow-up StudySince 1992, NCI, in collaboration with research centers throughout the United States, has been conducting the DES Follow-up Study of more than 21,000 mothers, daughters, and sons, to better understand the long-term health effects of exposure to DES.


This chapter covers the basic science and clinical materialsrelevant for care of patients who have been injured by poisoning or toxic exposure. Emphasis is placed on identifyingthe life-saving therapy and perioperative implications ofeach category of poison or toxic exposure.


This work began with studies on the endocrine-disrupting effects of the drug diethylstilbestrol (DES). From 1940s through 1970s, DES was used to treat women with high-risk pregnancies, with the mistaken belief that it prevented miscarriage. In 1972, prenatal exposure to DES was linked to the development of a rare form of vaginal cancer in daughters whose mothers took DES, and with numerous noncancerous changes in both sons and daughters. NIEHS experiments on DES successfully replicated and predicted health problems, which was useful in discovering how DES may harm wellbeing.


When people become infected with Ebola, they do not start developing signs or symptoms right away. This period between exposure to an illness and having symptoms is known as the incubation period. A person can only spread Ebola to other people after they develop signs and symptoms of Ebola.


EconPapers FAQ Archive maintainers FAQ Cookies at EconPapers Format for printing The RePEc blog The RePEc plagiarism page Downside risk aversion, fixed-income exposure, and the value premium puzzleGuido Baltussen, Gerrit T. Post and Pim VlietJournal of Banking & Finance, 2012, vol. 36, issue 12, 3382-3398Abstract:The value premium is relatively small for investors with a material fixed-income exposure, such as insurance companies and pension funds, especially when they are downside-risk-averse. Value stocks are less attractive to these investors because they offer a relatively poor hedge against poor bond returns. This result arises for plausible, medium-term evaluation horizons of around one year. Our findings cast doubt on the practical relevance of the value premium for these investors and reiterate the importance of the choice of the relevant test portfolio, risk measure and investment horizon in empirical tests of market portfolio efficiency.Keywords: Downside risk; Fixed income; Investment horizon; Value premium; Asset pricing (search for similar items in EconPapers)JEL-codes: G11 G12 (search for similar items in EconPapers)Date: 2012References: View references in EconPapers View complete reference list from CitEc Citations: View citations in EconPapers (3) Track citations by RSS feedDownloads: (external link) Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers onlyRelated works:This item may be available elsewhere in EconPapers: Search for items with the same title.Export reference: BibTeX RIS (EndNote, ProCite, RefMan) HTML/TextPersistent link: :eee:jbfina:v:36:y:2012:i:12:p:3382-3398DOI: 10.1016/j.jbankfin.2012.07.020Access Statistics for this articleJournal of Banking & Finance is currently edited by Ike MathurMore articles in Journal of Banking & Finance from ElsevierBibliographic data for series maintained by Catherine Liu (Obfuscate( 'elsevier.com', 'repec' )). var addthis_config = "data_track_clickback":true; var addthis_share = url:" :eee:jbfina:v:36:y:2012:i:12:p:3382-3398"Share This site is part of RePEc and all the data displayed here is part of the RePEc data set. Is your work missing from RePEc? Here is how to contribute. Questions or problems? Check the EconPapers FAQ or send mail to Obfuscate( 'oru.se', 'econpapers' ). EconPapers is hosted by the Örebro University School of Business. 041b061a72


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